The Treaty of Waitangi was signed on 6 February 1840 in a marquee erected in the grounds of James Busby's house at Waitangi in the Bay of Islands. A draft of the treaty had been presented to the local Maori chiefs the previous day and Governor William Hobson had returned to his ship, HMS Herald, anchored in the bay, expecting the Maori to discuss the treaty for a day and possibly sign it on the morning of 7 February. However, Maori had debated signing the treaty late into the night and appeared to have presumed the treaty would be signed in the morning of 6 February and did not have enough food to wait another day. Hobson was called ashore to sign the treaty just after noon, still dressed in his civilian clothes and only carrying his uniform hat.
The first Waitangi Day was celebrated as late as 1934. In 1932, Governor-General, Lord Bledisloe and his wife had purchased and gifted to the nation the run-down house of James Busby, where the Treaty was signed. It was restored, and the 1934 celebrations were a commemoration of the restoration.
Waitangi Day was proposed as a public holiday by the Labour Party in its 1957 party manifesto. After Labour won the election, it was reluctant to create a new public holiday, so legislation was first passed in 1960 making it possible for a locality to substitute Waitangi Day as an alternative to an existing public holiday. In 1963, after a change in government, Waitangi Day was substituted for Auckland Anniversary Day as the provincial holiday in Northland.
New Zealand DayEdit
Subsequently there were a few years during which the name was officially "New Zealand Day".
Controversy and protestEdit
Although this is New Zealand's national day, the commemoration has often been the focus of protest by Maori activists, and is often marred by controversy. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, Waitangi itself and Waitangi Day became a focus of protest concerning treaty injustices. Claiming the "Treaty is a fraud", Maori activists called for the holiday not to be celebrated until the treaty was "honoured".
Several hundred protestors often gather at Waitangi. Although not part of the official celebrations, Maori sovereignty activists often attempt to fly the Maori Sovereignty flag from the flagstaff. These protests are generally contained by the police, though few arrests are normally made. Attempts at vandalism of the flagstaff are often an objective of these protests, carrying on a tradition that dates from the 19th century when Maori chopped down flagstaffs as protests over land disputes.
In 2004, protestors succeeded in flying the Maori Sovereignty flag above the other flags on the flagstaff by flying it from the top of a nearby tree. Some commentators described this gesture as audacious and bold.
Template:Wikinews Because of the level of protest and violence that had previously occurred at Waitangi, the new Prime Minister did not attend in 2000. The official celebrations were shifted from Waitangi to Wellington in 2001. This change was considered an insult to Maori.
Most recently in 2003 and 2004 the anniversary was again officially commemorated at the treaty house at Waitangi where the treaty was first signed.
There has also been a tendency in recent years for emphasis to shift from the Governor-General, as representative of the Crown, to the Prime Minister, as political leader. This however is contrary to the basic nature of the commemoration, which is of a treaty between the Crown and Maori.
Celebrations at Waitangi often commence the previous day, 5 February, at the Ngapuhi's Te Tii marae, where political dignitaries are "welcomed" onto the marae and hear speeches from the local iwi. These speeches often deal with the issues of the day, and vigorous and robust debate occurs.
The ceremonies during the day generally include a church service and cultural displays such as dance and song. Several waka and a navy ship also re-enact the calling ashore of Governor Hobson to sign the treaty.
The day closes with the flags being lowered by the navy in a traditional ceremony.
Elsewhere in New ZealandEdit
In recent years, communities throughout New Zealand have been celebrating Waitangi Day in a variety of ways. These often take the form of public concerts and festivals. One notable annual event attracts thousands of people to Te Rauparaha Park at Porirua.
Some marae use the day as an open day and an educational experience for their local communities, giving them the opportunity to experience Maori culture and protocol. Other marae use the day as an opportunity to explain where they see Maori are and the way forward for Maori in New Zealand.
- A history of Waitangi Day from NZHistory.net.nz
- Text of Waitangi Rua Rau Tau Lecture 2004 - Ropeworks – He Taura Whiri from Radio New Zealand
- The Trail of Waitangi
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